Study on the Printing and Printing Bureau of the Old Jincheng City

Folk New Year Pictures is a kind of folk painting art that is suitable for the masses to celebrate the Spring Festival. People use the New Year painting to decorate the environment, increase the New Year's atmosphere, and get spiritual comfort and sustenance. The Yangliuqing in the western suburbs of Tianjin is the representative place of the folk woodcut New Year pictures in northern China. It has a long history and is famous both at home and abroad. The Yangliuqing paintings use a combination of woodblock engraving and artificial painting. From the mid-Qing Dynasty to the Guangxu period, it is the most prosperous period of Yangliuqing paintings. It prints millions of copies every year, from the end of the Qing Dynasty to the early years of the Republic of China. The power is won, the war is frequent, and the people are not happy. The gradual rise of lithograph and machine-printed New Year pictures has led to the decline of the Yangliu youth paintings.

The appearance of lithograph

In the 1930s, there was a Delisheng Printing Bureau and manager Zhang Kunshan in Nankai Sanma Road. In addition to printing trademark packaging, he also manufactures printing inks. The main sales are for the village's annual painting workshops in the suburbs of Xijiao, and for the first draft of Yangliuqing painting and printing ink lines. When he saw the lucrative New Year paintings, he studied the printing of New Year pictures and replaced them with electric lithography. At the beginning, due to the high rate of overprinting, the printed Chinese paintings were unclear and the finished products could not be sold. Zhang did not lose confidence, continuously improved the technology, increased shareholders, supplemented financial resources, and changed its name to Fuhua Printing Bureau. His son Zhang Yansheng participated in the operation and reversed the loss situation. And later added two lithography machine, a two-color offset printing machine, after many improvements, but also hired a custom artist, come on the market due to relatively clear woodblock New Year pictures, product gradually been accepted, opened the market. Fuhua lithograph is not satisfied with the status quo and has been improved: white paper, color overprinting, no artificial painting, the image is clear, people called "foreign painting" at that time. At the same time, it also has many varieties and novel themes. The production of the paper (Da Zhang) New Year pictures has "Tianguan blessing", "Fu Lushou Samsung", "Hundreds of flowers and glamour", etc., both sides are equipped with bright red couplets, like The middle hall painting hanging in the middle of the living room. In addition, there are drama paintings: “Tianhe Match”, “Yunhu Borrowing Umbrella”, and “Tianxian Sending Children”; the four-screen paintings include: “Four Seasons Flowers and Birds”, “Ladies”, “Military Generals”, and folk stories and There are twenty or thirty kinds of novels such as "Water Margin", "Three Kingdoms", "Journey to the West", "Yue Fei Chuan" and "Xi Xiang Ji". Four open papers (Xiao Zhang) are mostly played by dolls, and there are “Lucky Treasures”, “Daijin Fighting Gold”, “God of Wealth”, “Women’s Words” and “Twenty-four Filial Pieces”, among which “big New Year” is sold. The smoothest, never fading. The painting is divided into eight grids: from the "Tiantian" of the Twenty-three stoves of the twelfth lunar month to the dumplings in the 30th night, the eight-day folklore activities of the New Year are vividly depicted and welcomed by the urban and rural people. Formed the style of rich lithographs, and at that time, Yang Liuqing's New Year paintings were courtesy and sold to the three northern regions and all parts of the country. Since then, the printing bureaus that have printed trademark advertisements have changed their printing and printing of offset new year paintings, including "Xiecheng", "Huazhong", "Desheng" and "Yongyuan". Several painting shops in the Xijiao fried rice shop also funded the revitalization of the Shiyin New Year Printing Bureau. Due to monotonous products and poor sales, they successively stopped production and changed their old business. Fuhua Shiyin New Year's painting monopolizes the New Year's painting market and becomes a manufacturer of strong machine-printed New Year pictures in North China.

In 1939, the flood disaster in Tianjin, Fuhua suffered a fatal blow. The large number of webs of factory buildings, machinery, and imports were soaked by the flood for forty days. The losses were irreparable. Since then, the floods have been retreated. Fuhua has used damaged paper. The banknotes (fake banknotes burned to the dead) maintained the status quo and later changed the paper business. Renamed Fuyuan Paper Mill, after the joint venture in 1956, it was called Guangkai Paper Mill. The machine-printed New Year pictures have become a trace of history and are no longer mentioned by people.

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